英语字母组合发音规律秘诀

英语字母组合发音规律秘诀

1.开音节

    1)以发音的元音字母结尾的单节。 例:be,he。

    2)以辅音字母(r 除外)+不发音的e结尾的音节。 例:make,like。

    * 在重读的开音节中元音字母按字母名称读音。

2.闭音节

     以一个或几个辅音字母(r 除外)结尾而中间只有一个元音字母的音节,

    称为闭音节。例:map,desk,is。

    在重读的闭音节中元音字母读做短元音。

字母a,e,i,o,u 在重读音节中的读法

    

字母 名称 位置 读音 举例

a /ei/          开音节  /ei/ name,take 

         闭音节  /æ / map,bag

/i:/         开音节   /i:/ be,he         闭音节  /e/ egg,best

/ai/         开音节   /ai/ like,kite         闭音节  /i/ bit,fit

/ou/          开音节   /Eu/ note,no          闭音节  // dog,lot

/ju:/          开音节   /ju:/ mute,use          闭音节  // bus,cut

 

一、元音字母在重读音节中的读音

元音字母 读 音 例 词

a 在开音节中 [ei] name plane Jane baby cake

   在闭音节中 [æ] bag dad hat map black back

e 在开音节中 [i:] he these me Chinese

   在闭音节中 [e] bed let pen desk yes egg

i 在开音节中 [ai] bike fly drive time nice kite

  在闭音节中 fish big drink sit milk swim

o 在开音节中 [Eu] those close go hoe home no

   在闭音节中 [E] clock not box shop sock

u 在开音节中 [ju:] student excuse duty Tuesday,但u在辅音字母j l r s后面时读[u:]音,例如:June blue ruler super。但u在闭音节中 [∧] bus cup jump much lunch

 

二、元音字母在重读音节中的特殊读音

元音字母读音例词

a在[w]音后面 [C] want what watch wash quality

a在f n sk ph sp ss st th前 [α:] after plant graph ask grasp glass fast father

i在-nd -ld和gh前 [ai] find child light high

o在-st -ld前 [ou] most postcard old cold

o在m n v th前 [∧] come monkey love mother

 

三、元音字母在非重读音节中的读音

元音字母读音例词

a [E] China another woman breakfast

   [i ]  orange comrade village cabbage

e [E] hundred student open weekend

   [i ] chicken pocket begin children

i  [E]/[i]  holiday beautiful family animal

   [ai]      exercise satellite

o [E] second tonight somebody welcome

   [Eu] also zero photo

u [E] autumn difficult

   [ju(:)] popular congratulation January

动词中的a如果处在开音节位置,a读[ei]音,例如:operate

u处在开音节位置,又在辅音字母j l r s后面时,读[u(:) ]音,例如:July influence February issue

在非重读音节中,许多单词中的元音字母a e i 即可以读作[E]音,也可以读作音。

 

四、-r音节元音字母组合

   1、在重读音节中的读音元音字母组合读音例词

          ⑴、ar    一般发音      [α:] car farm dark sharpener

                        在[w]音后面 [c:] warm quarter towards

          ⑵、or    一般发音      [c:] forty morning short

                        在[w]音后面 [E:] word worker worse

          ⑶、er ir ur                   [E:]  certainly bird Thursday

          ⑷、辅音字母r双写时,前面的元音字母不能与r构成-r音节,而是按重读闭音节的拼读规则发音。例如: carry sorry hurry

  2、在非重读音节中通常读[E]音,例如:dollar teacher martyr forget Saturday

 

五、-re音节元音字母组合

      1、在重读音节中的读音

             are [εE] care dare hare

             ere [iE] here mere

             ire [aiE] fire hire wire

             ore [c:] more score before

             ure [juE] pure cure      2、在非重读音节中are ere ire ore很少出现,ure在非重读音节中读[E]音,例如:picture pleasure

          3、重读元音字母+r+非重读元音字母组时,重读元音字母应按a(e,i,o,u)re音节拼读规则拼读,字母r读[r]音。例如:parent zero story during inspiring

          4、某些常用词及多音节词经常出现长音短化现象。例如:orange very American paragraph

 

六、元音字母组合在重读音节中的读音

元音字母组合读音例词

ai/ay [ei]        rain wait day play

  air    [εE]        air hair chair pair repair

  al  在f,m,s前后             [c:]       small ball talk wall all

            [ c: l ]   always also salt almost

            [α:]        half calm

  au/aw   [c:]        autumn daughter draw

  ea的发音             [i:]          teach easy cheap please

            [e]          heavy bread sweater weather

            [ei]         break great

ear           [iE]         hear dear near clear year

          [εE]        bear pear wear swear

          [E:]         earth learn early

  ee       [i:]               jeep week green three

eer      [iE]           pioneer deer beer

  ei/ey            [ei]       eight neighbour they

           [i:]        either key

  eu/ew在j l r s后            [ju:]       new few newspaper

           [u:]         flew brew jewelry

  ie/ei[s]音之后 [i:] piece field receive

  oa [ou]            coat Joan boat goal

oar/oor [?:]      roar board door floor

oi/oy [?i]          noise point boy toilet

  oo      1. 重读音节词尾的字母组合oo发音素[u:]的音。如:too(太;也),zoo(动物园),

    2. 在辅音字母f, l, m, n, p,s,t前的字母组合oo也发音素[u:]的音。如:roof(屋顶),school(学校),room(房间),soon(不久),loop(圈,环),goose(鹅)boot(靴子),tooth(牙齿)等.有二个特例词要特别注意,它就是:wool[u](羊毛);:foot[u](脚);

    3. 字母组合oo在字母d和k前发音素[u]的音。如:good(好),book(书),look(看),特例词:food[u:](食物);

    4. 在复合词的非重读音节中的字母组合oo发音素[u]的音。如:bedroom(卧室),classroom(教室)等;

    5. 在字母l和d之间的字母组合oo发音素[∧]的音。如:blood(血),flood(洪水)等.

    6. 后接r时字母组合oo发音素[?:]      door,floor      ou/ow              [au]     flower house count down

             [ou]     know row throw though

             [∧]      young country enough

             [u:]       group you soup

  our              [?:]      course your four

             [auE]    our hour ours

             [E:]       journey

  ui在j l r s后               [ju:i]     fluid suicide tuition

              [u ]      juice fruit suit

 

七、非重读音节中元音字母组合和字群的读音

元音字母组合或字群读音例词

ai/ay ,  ei/ey  [i]            Sunday foreign monkey

ow               [ou]         yellow sparrow tomorrow

元音字组在非重读音节中读[E]音。例如:neighbour serious famous biscuit coffee

-sion -tion [Fn] impression nation

-sion在元音字母后 [Vn] vision decision occasion

-tion在s后 [t∫En] question suggestion

-sten [sn] listen

-stle [sl] whistle

-sure [VE] pleasure measure

-ture [t∫E] picture culture

 

八、元音字母组合在复合词非重读音节中的读音

复合词中的第二部分不标注重音符号,但其中的元音字母或元音字母组合仍按重读音节拼读规则拼读。例如: everyday[ei] handbag[æ] blackboard[C:]

有些词随着语言的发展,前后两部分已失去其单独存在的意义,融合成为一个词。其中的非重读部分要按非重读音节的读音规则发音。例如: sun太阳 + day[ei]日子 > Sunday 星期天 holy神圣 + day[ei]日子 > holiday 假日 break中断 + fast[α:]斋戒 > breakfast[E] 早餐 cup茶杯 + board木板[C:] > cupboard[E] 碗柜

 

九、辅音字母组合的读音

辅音字母组合 读 音 例 词

b [b] bike bus bag

   [/]  bomb tomb   c

    (1)后跟元音字母aou时,字母c[k],例如:catcomecut,cake picture coat music;后跟eiy时,字母c[s],例如:nicedecideLucy,face decide cinema     (2)后跟辅音字母krst,以及位于单词最后时,字母c[k],例如:blackcrossingpoliticsdictatepicnic     (3)单词中有双写字母c,后跟元音字母ei时第一个c[k],第二个c[s],例如:successfulaccident;后跟其它元音字母或字母组合时,两个c合发一个[k],例如:account  4)后跟字母组合eierie或与词尾的字母e组合时,c[s],例如:receivecertainlysociety;后跟字母组合ia时,c[∫],例如:especially                                ch           一般读作 [t∫]            much chick rich teacher

                           [k]          chemist(化学家),chem-istry(化学),chemical(化学的),Christmas(圣诞节),          headache(头痛),school(学校)等6个单词中读[k]

                           [∫]             machine

  -ck      [k]             cock pocket black knock

  d         [d]             doctor bread hand day

-dge    [dV]           bridge fridge

  dr-      [dr]            children driver drink

  f          [f]               five four breakfast

  g在e i/y前 [g]       bag garden go

                  [dV]    orange large German

  gh字母组合的读音在中学英语课本中归纳起来主要有“发音”和“不发音”两种情况。

       一、gh在下列三种情况下发音

            1.gh在词首时,读作/g/。例:ghost/g?ust/

            2.词首为字母1,且后跟字母组合augh时,gh读作/f/。例:laugh/la:f/,laughter/'la:ft?/,cough ,enough 

            3.词尾为字母组合ough时,gh读作/f/。例:enough /i'n?f/,cough/k?f/,rough/r?f/,tough/t?f/

       二、gh在下列五种情况下不发音

            1.gh 在元音字母i后不发音。例:bright/brait/,fight/fait/,frighten/'fraitn/,high/hai/,light/lait/,might/mait/,night/nait/,right/rait/,sight/sait/,slight/slait/

            2.gh在元音字母组合ei和ai后不发音。例:eight/eit/,eighth/eitθ/,neighbor/'neib?/,straight/streit/,weigh/wei/,weight/weit/

            3.gh在字母组合ought中不发音。例:bought/b?:t/,brought/br?:t/,fought/f?:t/,thought/θ?:t/

            4.字母组合augh前面不是1时,gh不发音。caught/k?:t/,daughter/'d?:t?/,naught/n?:t/,naughty/'n?:ti/,taught/t?:t/

            5.词尾为ough的词,如以上所述,有的发/f/,但有时也不发音。例:although/?:l'ð?u/,plough/plau/,through/θru:/,though/ð?u/,thorough/'θ?r?/

 

       注意:若gh不是字母组合,而是分属于前后两个不同的音节时,不适合以上规则。例:dininghall/'daini?h?:l/   gu-           -guegu在非重读音节中 [g] guess league dialogue

          [gw]            language anguish

  h                     [h]              hot head house hand

           [/]               hour honest

  j          [dV]            jeep jar joke join July

  k         [k]               kind bike skate make week

kn-      [n]               knife know knock

l          [l]                 life milk school tall

  m        [m]               monkey come autumn

  -mn     [m]               autumn column solemn

  n在[k] [g]音前 [n] not shine ten note

                          [N] uncle thank hungry

  -ng [N] morning young wrong

  p [p] paper plane pig ship pen

  ph [f] elephant photo telephone

q [k] Iraq

  qu- [kw] quality quite   r [r] red rubber ruler

  s在词首或清辅音前元音字母间或浊辅音前 [s] sit sleep desk

          [z] music husband

  sc- [sk] scarlet

      [s] muscle science

 sh   [∫] she fish shirt wash

t        [t] ten letter meet

       在通常情况下在弱读字母ia ie io前 [∫] patient nation  

 tch [t∫] watch   th清与浊两种读音:      1 当位于词首时,可以从词性上判别其应有的读音。请看:

      第一类:在以下 4 词类 th 清音,即国际音标的 θ                 a. Noun 名词:thing, theatre, thumb大拇指, thunder,thermos热水瓶, Thursday, theory, theme, throat喉咙, thread线                 b. Verb 动词:think, thank, throw, thrive, thicken,                  c.Numeral 数词:three, thirteen, thirty, third, thousand                 d.Adjective 形容词:thin, thick, thirsty, thoughtful, thorough彻底的       第二类:在以下 两种 词类 th 浊音:                 a. Pronoun 代词:they, them, their, theirs, this, these,that, those, there                 b. Functional terms 功能词:the, than, then, though, thus,therefore       2 当位于词尾(或音节之尾)时,其读音多数是清音,如:bath, breath, both, cloth, tooth, health, wealth, arithmetic 等。只有在少数单词中,如:with, smooth 中读浊音。       3 当位于两个元音之间时,其读音多数是浊音。如:other, mother, brother, another, father, weather, feather, leather, further, breathe。 但是,也有读清音的,如在单词 method, nothing, anything, sympathy, sympathetic, mathematics, healthy, wealthy, Luther, Marathon(马拉松)等。

  tr- [tr] tree train country truck   v [v] very voice love leave   w        [w] week win wake sweet wait

    [/] Answer two   wh-      wh-在字母o前 [w] what when white why

      [h] who whose whole   x       在重读元音前 [ks] box text exercise

      [gz] example exist exact   wr- [r] write   y- [j] yes yard yellow young   z [z] puzzle zero zoo  

26个字母发音规律a /ei/ name  cake   table /æ/ apple cat  map  am/α: /  want  dance

/o/  what  watch

b /b/ book big   bag box

c /k/ cat cake cup clock car

/s/  face nice pencil books

d /d/ desk doll dog dad

e /i:/ he she meet me

/e/ elephant egg bed pen

f /f/ fine friend fly foot fan

g /ɡ/ gun glass glad glove     

/dз /  age  orangeh /h/  hat he house handi /ai / fine bike  five  ice/i/ is sit miss pig picture

j / dз / jeep jam jacket jar

k /k/ kite cake black thank

l /l/ leg left ruler flag lamp

/l/ apple bowl tell old

m/m/ am map my mouth milk

n /n/ no know new hand

o /?u / old home nose coke

/o/ dog not clock box

/Λ / son month mother love

p /p/ map jeep pig pen appleq  /kw / quite quilt quickr /r/ red radio brother rackets /s/ sit miss this smile books

/z/ nose those rose rulers

t /t/ it sit not that table little

u /ju: / use usually excuse

/Λ / bus us sun duck

/ u / put  pull  push

v /v /  five vase very seven

w /w/ we window watch want

x /ks /   box  six  fox

y /ai / my fly why bye / j /  yes  yellow / i /  happy baby veryz / z /  zoo   zero

 

 

 

元音组合

ai  /ei/  wait  paint

ay /ei/ may play day say

air /ε? / air hair chair

al /o: / tall small ball

ar /α: / farther farm car arm

 

ea /i:/ meat please tea read  /e/ head bread ready  / i? /  theaterear / i? / ear  hear  near

  / ε? /  bear

  / ?: /  earth

ee /i:/ meet see bee feet jeep

eir / ε? / their

er / ? /  worker teacher

  / ?: /  her

ere /i ? /  here

   /ε? / where there

ew /ju: / new  few  /u: / flew  grewight /ai / right high brightir /?: / bird girl shirt thirty

oa /?u / boat coat

ong /o? /  long  song

oo /u/ book foot good

  /u:/ moon balloon

or / : / short fork port

  /?: / word world work

oor /o: / door  floor

ore /o:/ more store sore

ou / au / out house mouthour /o: / four   your   /au? / ourow/ ?u / bowl  window

  /au / now cow flower

oy /oi/  boy  toy

ur / ?: /  turn

 

 

辅音组合

th /θ/ thank  mouth

  / δ/ this that with

tr  /tr/ tree train truckdr  /dr/ dress driver sh /∫/ shirt wash shortch /t∫/ child chair catch

  / k / school  Christmas

  / dз/  sandwich

tw /tw/  two twin twenty

wh /w/ white wheel what

  /h/ who whose whom

ts /ts/  jackets  kites

ds /dz/  birds  friends

 x:  这个字母跟f,l,m,n,s,z一样同属限音/e/一族,什么叫限音/e/呢,就是这些字母的读音都含有/e/,限音的意思就是这些字母在组成单词的时候,发音要去掉/e/,比如x这个字母的发音是/eks/,那么在它组合单词的时候,发间就变成了/ks/。同样的,其它几个限音/e/一族也遵循着这个规律。(当然有时会有浊化音的产生,比如说s的读音为/es/,在单词中有时会读成/s/,有时则会浊化为/z/)。

m: 这个字母多发两个音,由于音标是一样的,所以在这里没法对两个读音作区分,那么在这里只需记住一个单词就可以清楚的了解在什么情况下m这个字母发何种音,这个单词就是mum,很简单,m在元音前和在元音后所发的音是不一样的。

y: 这个字母号称半元音。它在组合单词的时候一共有三种发音,分别是/j/,/ai/,/i/。当y在词首的时候,它发/j/,如yes,yard,yet等。当y存在于词中和词尾的时候又分为两种情况:1、当单词中没有元音的时候,y发/ai/,如my,fly.2、在单词中已经含有元音的时候,y发音为/i/,如family,sorry.

 

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